Notes to North Korea Piece



NOTES


 


1.        Bruce Cumings, Korea’s Place in the Sun, New York, 1997


2.        Ashton B. Carter and William J. Perry, “Back to the Brink,” Washington Post, October 20, 2002.          Leon V. Sigal, “Jimmy Carter,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, January-February 1998.


3.        “South Korea Stopped US Strike on North Korea,” Agence France-Presse, May 24, 2000.


4.        Leon V. Sigal, “Jimmy Carter,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, January-February 1998.


5.        Kenneth R. Bazinet, “U.S., North Korea Near War in 1994,” New York Daily News, October 19, 2002.


6.        Agreed Framework between the DPRK and the US, Geneva, October 21, 1994.


7.        “N Korea Warned Over Nuclear Deal,” BBC News, August 7, 2002.


8.        Agreed Framework between the DPRK and the US, Geneva, October 21, 1994.


9.        Hans M. Kristensen, “Preemptive Posturing,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, September-October 2002.                                                                                                                                                “Interview (U), Brigadier General Randall K. Bigum, Commander 4th Fighter Wing with Sgt John T. Murphy, 4th Fighter Wing Historian, 14 July 1998 (document obtained by Hans M. Kristensen through the Freedom of Information Act.


10.     Karen DeYoung, “Bush Lays Down a Marker for 3 ‘Evil’ States,” Washington Post, January 30, 2002.


11.     “US ‘Has Nuclear Hit List,” BBC News, March 9, 2002.                                                                          “N Korea Condemns US ‘Nuclear Blackmail,” BBC News, March 13, 2002.


12.     Callum A. MacDonald, Korea: the War Before Vietnam, New York, 1987.                                       Bruce Cumings, Korea’s Place in the Sun, New York, 1997                                                                 Gabriel Kolko, Century of War, New York, 1994.                                                                                  Callum MacDonald, “’So Terrible a Liberation’ – The UN Occupation of North Korea,” Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, April-June 1991.   Although little known, this is one of the most remarkable and important articles I’ve ever read.  It is absolutely essential reading for anyone attempting to learn about and understand the Korean War.  For anyone with an interest in the subject, it is well worth the time to track down in a university library.


13.     broadcast, Pyongyang Broadcasting Station , October 15, 2002.                                                          Dan Oberdorfer, “My Private Seat at Pyongyang’s Table,” Washington Post, November 10, 2002.        broadcast,  Pyongyang Broadcasting Station, October 22, 2002.   


14.     Dan Oberdorfer, “My Private Seat at Pyongyang’s Table,” Washington Post, November 10, 2002.       The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.                                                                       “Conclusion of the Non-Aggression Treaty Between DPRK and U.S. Called For,” KCNA (Pyongyang), October 25, 2002.                                                                                                                “N Korea Accuses US of ‘Fabrication’,” BBC News, November 28, 2002.                                         “DPRK Accuses US of Cooking Information on Nuclear Program,” Agence France-Presse, November 28, 2002.


15.     Doug Struck, “U.S. Plays Down Talks with N. Korean Officials,” Washington Post, October 6, 2002.


16.     Broadcast, Korean Central Broadcasting Station (Pyongyang), October 7, 2002.


17.     “ROK Defense Ministry Questions DPRK’s Technological Ability to Weaponize Plutonium,” Yonhap (Seoul), October 17, 2002.


18.     Anatoliy Yurkin, “Russian Experts Say North Korea Cannot Produce Nuclear Weapons,” ITAR-TASS (Moscow), November 19, 2002.


19.     Judith Ingram, “Report: Russian Criticizes N. Korea,” Associated  Press, October 31, 2002.          Valery Agarkov, “No Proof That DPRK Has Nuclear Programme,” ITAR-TASS (Moscow), October 31, 2002.


20.     Sohn Suk-joo, “Unification Minister Alleges US Exaggeration of NK Nuke Plan,” Korea Times, October 24, 2002.


21.     Isabel Reynolds, ‘U.S. Envoy in Tokyo for Talks on North Korean Weapons,” Reuters, October 20, 2002.                                                                                                                                                     â€œU.S. Envoy Vows Pressure on North Korea,” Associated Press, October 19, 2002.                         Sang-Hun Choe, “U.S. Envoy Warns N. Korea on Nukes,” Associated Press, October 19, 2002.       David E. Sanger, “U.S. to Withdraw from Arms Accord with North Korea,” New York Times, October 20, 2002.                                                                                                                                                    Robin Wright and Mark Magnier, “U.S. Tries to Block N. Korea’s Cash, Sunshine,” Los Angeles Times, October 21, 2002.


22.     Charles Laurence, David Wastell, Jack Fairweather, “US Forces Told to Destroy Supply Lines of Terror,” Daily Telegraph (London), November 24, 2002.


23.     “Conclusion of Non-Aggression Treaty Between DPRK and U.S. Called For,” KCNA (Pyongyang), October 25, 2002.


24.     Scott Lindlaw, “U.S. to N. Korea: Scrap Nuke Quest,” Associated Press, November 3, 2002.


25.     So Hyun-Chin, “South to Call for Continued U.S. Oil Shipment to North,” Korea Herald (Seoul), November 8, 2002.                                                                                                                               Kwon Kyong-Pak, “TCOG Meeting – The United States Shows Hard-Line Stance Toward Suspension of Heavy Oil Provision: ROK and Japan Trying to Dissuade,” Choson Ilbo (Seoul), November 10, 2002.                                                                                                                                                        â€œSeoul, Washington Still at Odds on Oil Shipment to North Korea,” Korea Herald (Seoul), November 10, 2002.


26.     George Gedda, “U.S. to Suspend Oil to North Korea,” Associated Press, November 14, 2002.            “Seoul Calls on U.S. to Keep Oil Flowing to North Until January,” Korea Herald (Seoul), November 13, 2002.                                                                                                                                                  Paul Eckert, “S. Korea Urges North to Heed Allies’ Oil Message,” Reuters, November 15, 2002.        Stephen Fidler, “US Seeks to Contain North Korea,” Financial Times (London), November 19, 2002.   “KEDO Executive Board Meeting Concludes – November 14, 2002,” November 14, 2002.             “Statement Released to Blame U.S. for Rupture of 1994 Pact,” JoongAng Ilbo (Seoul), November 21, 2002.


27.     Agreed Framework between the DPRK and the US, Geneva, October 21, 1994.


28.     Agreement on Supply of a Light-Water Reactor Project to the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Between the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization and the Government of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,” December 15, 1995.                                                             Protocol Between the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization and the Government of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea on Actions in the Event of Nonpayment with Respect to Financial Obligations,” June 24, 1997.


29.     Desaix Anderson, “Myths About KEDO,” speech at the Georgetown-Pacific Century Institute, March 25, 2001.                                                                                                                                               James Brooke, “U.S. Plan for Trade Penalties for North Korea Worries South Korean Investors,” New York Times, December 30, 2002.


30.     Bruce Cumings, Parallax Visions, Durham & London, 1999.


31.     David Von Hippel, Timothy Savage, Peter Hayes, “The DPRK Energy Sector: Estimated Year 2000 Energy Balance and Suggested Approaches to Sectoral Redevelopment,” Nautilus Institute report prepared for the Korea Energy Economics Institute, September 13, 2002.                                             James H. Williams, David Von Hippel, Peter Hayes, “Policy Paper 46: Fuel and Famine: Rural Energy Crisis in the DPRK,” University of California Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation.


32.     Peter Hayes, “KEDO Fuel Oil and the DPRK: a Special Report,” Nautilus Institute, November 15, 2002.                                                                                                                                                           â€œN. K. to Suffer Energy Shortage Without Fuel Oil from KEDOL Experts,” Korea Times (Seoul), November 21, 2002.


33.     Park Sung-Woo, “Fuel Embargo Would be ‘Fatal Blow’ to N. Korea,” Reuters, November 14, 2002.


34.     http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap020810.html                                                                       http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/image/0208/earthlights02_dmsp_big.jpg                                   http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/image/9907/asia_dmsp_big.gif


35.     James H. Williams, David Von Hippel, Peter Hayes, “Policy Paper 46: Fuel and Famine: Rural Energy Crisis in the DPRK,” University of California Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation.


36.     David Von Hippel, Timothy Savage, Peter Hayes, “The DPRK Energy Sector: Estimated Year 2000 Energy Balance and Suggested Approaches to Sectoral Redevelopment,” Nautilus Institute report prepared for the Korea Energy Economics Institute, September 13, 2002.                                             James H. Williams, David Von Hippel, Peter Hayes, “Policy Paper 46: Fuel and Famine: Rural Energy Crisis in the DPRK,” University of California Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation.                “Floods Devastate N. Korean Food Supplies for Second Year,” CNN, August 6, 1996.                         “North Korea – Floods/Food Shortage – Fact Sheet #1,” U.S. Agency for International Development, August 26, 1996.                                                                                                                                       â€œNorth Korea: Food/Health Emergency,” U.S. Agency for International Development.                        “North Korea Says Many Dead in Rains, Typhoons,” CNN, September 22, 2000.                                            “News Release: FAO and WFP: Severe Spring Drought Worsens Already Precarious Food Situation in North Korea,” Food and Agriculture Organization and World Food Program, July 27, 2001.               “North Korea Battered by Tidal Wave,” BBC News, October 16, 2001.                                                “North Korea Hit by Double Whammies of Drought and Flood: Report,” Agence France-Presse, October 1, 2001.


37.     “Special Report: FAO/WFP Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission to the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,” Food and Agriculture Organization and World Food Program, July 29, 2002.    “Special Report: FAO/WFP Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission to the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,” Food and Agriculture Organization and World Food Program, October 28, 2002.


38.     “World Hunger – Korea (DPR),” World Food Program.


39.     “Lack of Funds Forces WFP to Cut Assistance to Hungry North Koreans,” WFP News Release, September 30, 2002.                                                                                                                                  Geoffrey York, “Millions Face Starvation After Shortage of Donations Forces UN to Slash Rations,” The Globe and Mail (Toronto), October 1, 2002.                                                                                  Doug Struck, “Aid Used as Lever with Pyongyang,” Washington Post, December 5, 2002.                “U.N. Agency Appeals for $201 Million to Feed North Koreans,” Associated Press, December 4, 2002. “World Food Program Warns it Might Close in DPRK by April,” Xinhua (Beijing), December 3, 2002.


40.     George Gedda, “U.S. Puts Limits on Food Aid to N. Korea,” Associated Press, December 6, 2002.        Tyler Marshall, “Nuclear Plans May Put Food Aid for N. Korea at Risk,” Los Angeles Times, December 17, 2002.                                                                                                                                 Jasper Becker, “North Korea’s Food Aid Cut Drastically,” San Francisco Chronicle, December 21, 2002.


41.     Bob Woodward, “A Course of ‘Confident Action’,” Washington Post, November 19, 2002.


42.     Ahmed Al-Haj, “Captain of Scud-Carrying Ship Speaks Out,” Associated Press, December 17, 2002.  “U.S. ‘Pirates’ Damaged Ship: North Korean Captain Carrying Missiles to Yemen,” canada.com, uncensored version of AP report, December 17, 2002.                                                                        “Captain of DPRK Trading Cargo Ship Interviewed,” KCNA (Pyongyang), December 20, 2002.      Broadcast, Korean Central Satellite TV (Pyongyang), December 19, 2002.                                       Pauline Jelinek, “Yemen Agrees: No More N. Korea Missiles,” Associated Press, December 12, 2002.


43.     Linda Diebel, “U.S. Scorned for Foreign Arms Stand,” Toronto Star, December 12, 2002.                 Leon V. Sigal, “North Korea on Hold…Again,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, May/June 2001.


44.     “Is America Trying to Help Lee Hoe Chang Win the Election?”, Ohmynews (Republic of Korea internet newspaper), December 11, 2002.


45.     Bill Tarrant, “S. Korean Presidential Rivals Spar Over N. Korea,” Reuters, December 18, 2002.           “Special Series on Presidential Candidates’ Campaign Pledges – 3. North Korea Policy,” Yonhap (Seoul), November 18, 2002.                                                                                                                  “US Likely to Refrain from Pressure Tactic on NK for Now,” Korea Times (Seoul), November 8, 2002.                                                                                                                                                       â€œGov’t Faces Difficulty in Setting Economic Policy Ahead of Poll,” Korea Times (Seoul), December 15, 2002.


46.     Howard W. French, “Seoul May Loosen its Ties to the U.S.,” New York Times, December 20, 2002.    Howard W. French, “Bush and the New Korean Leader to Take Up Thorny Issues,” New York Times, December 21, 2002.


47.     Mike Allen and Barton Gellman, “Preemptive Strikes Part of U.S. Strategic Doctrine,” Washington Post, December 11,2002.


48.     Ser Myo-Ja, “EU Withholds $20 Million from North’s Reactor Project,” JoongAng Ilbo (Seoul), December 15, 2002.                                                                                                                              George Gedda, “N. Korea Faces Cold Winter of Oil Cutbacks,” Associated Press, December 11, 2002.


49.     “Full Text N.K.’s Declaration to Revoke Nuke Freeze,” JoongAng Ilbo (Seoul), December 13, 2002.


50.     Tyler Marshall and Barbara Demick, “N. Korea’s Neighbors Accept U.S. Hard Line,” Los Angeles Times, December 19, 2002.                                                                                                                    Paul Eckert, “N. Korea Says it’s Reactivating Nuclear Plant,” Reuters, December 12, 2002.


51.     Jacques Isnard, “Mr. Bush Decides to Deploy Initial Phase of US Antimissile Shield Program,” Le Monde (Paris), December 19, 2002.                                                                                                        Charles Aldinger, “U.S. to Begin Deploying Missile Defense System,” Reuters, December 17, 2002.


52.     “U.S. to Blame for Measures Taken to Lift Nuclear Freeze,” KCNA (Pyongyang), December 15, 2002.


53.     Bill Tarrant, “North Korea Could Re-open Nuclear Plant in Weeks,” Reuters, December 11, 2002.


54.     “Text of Letter Sent by North Korea to U.N. Nuclear Watchdog,” Associated Press, December 27, 2002.


55.     Kim Young-Sae, “Concern Rises Here Over Broken Seals,” JoongAng Ilbo, December 26, 2002.       Kim Young-Sik, “North Asks IAEA to Remove Nuclear Monitoring System,” Tong-a Ilbo (Seoul), December 14, 2002.                                                                                                                             “Reactor Could Take Years to Make Material for 1 Weapon,” USA Today, December 27, 2002.


56.     “Russia Says North Korea Incapable of Developing Military Nuclear Programme,” Interfax News Agency (Moscow), December 27, 2002.                                                                                              Vladimir Golovchansky, “N Korea May Have Plutonium Warheads – Russian Analyst,” ITAR-TASS (Moscow), December 23, 2002.  [Note – an odd title for an article in which the exact opposite is said].


57.     Ron Fournier, “U.S. Denounces North Korea’s Expulsion,” Associated Press, December 27, 2002.    David E. Sanger, “Bush Aides Back Effort for U.N. Denunciation of North Korea,” New York Times, December 27, 2002.                                                                                                                            Jonathan D. Salant, “U.S. Plans to Boost Pressure on N. Korea,” Associated Press, December 28, 2002. John Gittings and Oliver Burkeman, “Bush Plans Sanctions on North Korea,” The Guardian (London), December 30, 2002.


58.     David E. Sanger and James Dao, “North Korea Says it Regains Access to its Plutonium,” New York Times, December 23, 2002.                                                                                                                    Paul Eckert, “Pressure on North Korea Won’t Work, Says South,” Reuters, December 30, 2002.      “President Kim Skeptical About U.S. Embargo Plan,” JoongAng Ilbo (Seoul), December 30, 2002.


59.     John Larkin and Murray Hiebert, “Talks Needed to Avert Attack,” Far Eastern Economic Review, December 25, 2002 – January 2, 2003.


60.     Ju Yong-Jung, “US Hawk Warns Not to Rule Out Military Option,” Chosun Ilbo (Seoul), December 18, 2002.


61.     David Stout, “Rumsfeld Says, If Necessary, U.S. Can Fight 2 Wars at Once,” New York Times, December 24, 2002.


62.     Suzanne Goldenberg, “Monitors Give Pyongyang Arms Deadline,” The Guardian, November 30, 2002.


63.     Katerina Labetskaya, “Deputy Foreign Minister Georgi Mamedov Discusses Iraq, North Korea, Iran,” Vremya Novostei (Moscow), December 23, 2002.


64.     Robin Shepherd, “Threats Will Change Nothing, Says Russia,” The Times (London), December 28, 2002.


65.     “Seoul Steps Up Pressure As World Condemns North Korean Nuke Plans,” Agence France-Presse, December 27, 2002.


66.     Kim Min-Seouk and Jung Chang-Hyun, “South Korean Analysts: More Talks on Nuclear Crisis,” JoongAng Ilbo (Seoul), December 28, 2002.

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