Newly elected Bolivian President, Evo Morales, recently swore in the 16 ministers who will form his new government cabinet. For the first time in Boliviaâ€™s 180-year history as an independent nation, the majority of those who now fill the highest governmental posts are indigenous, and many come from outside traditional power circles.
During last yearâ€™s elections, one of the most common criticisms against Morales, an Aymara Indian who himself never went to high school, was that, in contrast to his closest opponent, U.S.-educated former president Jorge Quiroga, Morales lacked the experience and education befitting a presidential candidate. After an unprecedented election victory, now as Morales formulates his government and begins the work of governing, criticisms of â€˜inexperienceâ€™ have resurfaced.
The Economist recently accused Moralesâ€™ cabinet choices of smacking of â€˜radicalism,â€™ stating that Boliviaâ€™s new ministers â€˜nearly all have as little experience of government as Mr. Morales…â€™ (01/26/06)
The perceived â€˜inexperienceâ€™ of Moralesâ€™ government, however, has a unique political significance here in the poorest and most indigenous country in South America, where positions of power have historically been reserved for a minority light-skinned criollo elite.
Decemberâ€™s unprecedented election victory for Morales is part of a larger political shift in the country, creating a new reality in which previously marginalized campesino, labor, indigenous, and other social movements are now finding themselves in power.
A â€˜Cabinet of Changeâ€™
In the swearing-in ceremony for what Morales has deemed his â€˜cabinet of change,â€™ Casimira RodrÃguez takes the oath before a crowd of cameras. With two thick braids trailing down her back, Rodriguez stands in the shawl, lace shirt, and wide pleated skirt called a pollera, which since the 18th Century have made up the traditional dress of indigenous women in much of Bolivia.
RodrÃguez is Boliviaâ€™s first Quechua Indian to serve as a government minister. Her experience, not just her appearance, is uniquely different from those who have stood here before her.
When RodrÃguez was 13, she was taken from her rural village in Mizque and brought to the city of Cochabamba, with the promise that in exchange for her labor, she would be provided with the schooling and care her campesino parents could not afford. Instead, RodrÃguez was held in servitude- forced to work long hours with no pay and regularly abused by her supposed employers- until she was finally rescued two years later.
RodrÃguezâ€™s experience is unfortunately not an uncommon one for many women in Bolivia, where historic racial and economic discrimination remains strong. Domestic work is almost exclusively relegated to Quechua and Aymara women forced for economic reasons to migrate from rural to urban areas.
Now, however, at just 39 years-old, Casimira RodrÃguez is Boliviaâ€™s new Minister of Justice.
Breaking with History
Spurred by 20 years of failed free-market economic policies (called neo-liberal policies here), which have devastated Boliviaâ€™s economy and exacerbated economic and political discrimination, Moralesâ€™ campaign rode a wave of popular demand for profound structural changes, including nationalization of the countryâ€™s gas reserves and a restructuring of the state.
When it comes to creating a new government by Bolivians, for Bolivians, however, the territory is largely uncharted. Bolivia has a long history of governments which havenâ€™t governed for the majority of Bolivians. It also has a history of governments which in many areas, didnâ€™t govern at all.
Since Colonial times, administration and policymaking in Bolivia has often been ceded to foreign interests. With the advent of the Washington Consensus neo-liberal economic model, those interests have taken a different shape over the last 20 years. Transnational petroleum corporations were handed Boliviaâ€™s $10 million gas reserves at no cost and now operate with almost no regulation. International financial institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund rewrote entire areas of Bolivian law to facilitate the privatization of the countryâ€™s state industries, and now control over 50 percent of the public budget. The U.S. Embassy and the U.S. War on Drugs direct the priorities of Boliviaâ€™s military forces and wrote the countryâ€™s expansive drug law, imposing the concept of guilty until proven innocent for those accused of drug-related crimes.
The impact of this 20-year cession of governance to foreign economic interests is clear. The Chilean company that bought the national railroad sold it for scrap. The U.S. and French companies that took over municipal water systems in Cochabamba and La Paz raised water rates up to 200%. U.S.-crafted drug policy has facilitated gross human rights violations by the military, in addition to the incarceration of 40% of those living in Boliviaâ€™s jails, the majority of whom have never been charged. While a handful of businessmen and politicians have enriched themselves, Bolivia as a whole has higher unemployment and a lower standard of living than 20 years before. The government income once generated by state industries now must be borrowed from international lenders, and the countryâ€™s resultant national debt is over a crippling $4,500 million.
The promises of foreign-imposed economic and political policies have proven to be far removed from the reality experienced by the majority of Bolivians. In response, citizens have taken to the streets in repeated mass protests over the past three years. Hundreds of civilians have been killed or wounded by subsequent government violence, and two successive presidents have been removed from office.
What the country has called for, across class and ethnic lines, is a major change- a government by Bolivians, for Bolivians- what Morales calls â€˜the nationalization of the government.â€™
The challenge before Boliviaâ€™s new government is by no means a small one. The task of implementing profound structural changes and attempting to step outside of current global economic norms, in what remains a greatly divided and highly indebted country, will not be easy.
But, ironically, Boliviaâ€™s new â€˜inexperiencedâ€™ government has a few things in its favor.
Elected with an over 20% margin, and with the first majority popular vote and highest voter turnout in Bolivian history, Moralesâ€™ popular mandate for change is unprecedented. His outsider cabinet picks reflect that mandate, drawing their experience from within the social movements and affiliated academic circles which for decades have been struggling to create a more just economic and political system.
Andres Solis Rada, the new Minister of Hydrocarbons is a lawyer and journalist, and longtime nationalization advocate. Walter Villarroel, the new Minister of Mining, is a leader of a minersâ€™ cooperative. Nila Heredia, the new Minister of Health, is a longtime public health worker and social advocate exiled by the Banzer dictatorship in the â€˜70s. Abel Mamani, the new Minister of Water, led efforts in 2004 to reverse the privatization of La Pazâ€™s water system. Justice Minister RodrÃguez was elected Secretary General of the Confederation of Women Domestic Workers of Latin America and the Caribbean, and was responsible for the creation and adoption of national legislation which for the first time afforded rights to Boliviaâ€™s over 132,000 domestic workers.
As Morales stands before his new cabinet in his now famous attire of a striped sweater, in lieu of the western-style business suit of his predecessors, he describes the mandate of the new government. â€˜This is the first cabinet of change, chosen to fulfill changes in democracy against the neo-liberal model, and to resolve the structural and social problems in the country.â€™
Can it Work?
On Inauguration Day in a hotel bar in La Paz, bartender David Garzon listens to Moralesâ€™ first national address as President. He gaffs, both pleased and shocked as Morales announces a 50% pay cut for the presidency and urges congress to implement the same.
I ask him what he thinks of the new Presidentâ€™s discourse. â€˜Itâ€™s great,â€™ he says emphatically, â€˜better than other past presidents.â€™
When asked why, he replies, â€˜Heâ€™s suffered and so he understands the country.â€™
In the short weeks since the election, Morales has used his victory shrewdly. Even before taking office, Morales embarked on an 4-continent tour yielding various agreements of international support, including debt forgiveness from Spain, literacy programs from Cuba, commercial agreements with China, technical assistance on oil and gas development from Brazil, and a soy for diesel agreement with Venezuela.
A recent public opinion poll by Apoyo OpiniÃ³n y Mercado indicates that Moralesâ€™ post-election popularity has increased to 74%.
I ask Garzon if he thinks Morales and his government with their limited experience can succeed in making the profound changes the country is expecting.
â€˜Yes,â€™ he says. â€˜He can because he has the backing of the people.â€™
As RodrÃguez explains it, â€˜to administer justice well you donâ€™t need to be a lawyer.â€™
The road ahead for the members of Boliviaâ€™s new government will assuredly not be easy. Social movements themselves have not been without criticisms of the Morales government, be it over political alliances of minister choices or policy direction. Time will quickly tell if the governmentâ€™s unique experiences have prepared them to tackle the difficult task of moving the country forward.
For many Bolivians, however, seeing on television the image of Casimira RodrÃguez, an ex-domestic worker in her braids and pollera, being sworn in as a government Minister, is like seeing themselves.
In a country where the vast majority has historically lived in exclusion and oppression, that is an entirely new experience.
It may just be the experience Bolivia needs.
**Gretchen Gordon is a writer on Latin America and Globalization. She lives in Cochabamba, Bolivia and can be reached at [email protected]