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DOUBTS ABOUT US CONSTITUTION (ii) – Article 2 – The Executive – (“The highway is for gamblers”; a “Russian Roulette” kind of system)


About US election system, I  find some clear explanation in the Spanish Wikipedia.

 The president of the United States is elected in an assembly formed by 538 electors.  This figure is equal to the sum of 100 senators + 435 congressmen + 3 delegates from Washington D.C., which does not have senators but delegates.  Each state contributes with a fixed number or a “block” of these electors, whose number is equal to the sum of their representatives plus their senators (or, in the case of Washington D.C. delegates).

On the ballots, each candidate for president is attached the name of his vice president and the political party to which he belongs.  But the votes of the winning option in each one of the states are not geared towards electing the president, but towards achieving that ALL the electors of that particular state, even those who have received the vote of a different party, vote for that option later in the electoral college.

As there are 538 electors, a candidate needs at least 270 to be elected: 538/2 = 269 + 1 = 270. 270 electors are needed to be elected president of the United States.

A map of the 50 states of US with the correspondent number of “electors” / “delegates” can be found pressing the link:

https://es.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elecciones_presidenciales_en_Estados_Unidos

This process is ruled in Article ii) Section ii) and the 12th Amendment:

Article ii), Section ii): Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

(Amendment 12 – Election of President)

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;—The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;—The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.14  —The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.  ratified #12   affects 8

Evrn looked at from the Spanish Kingdom everything appears arbitrary and fake.

Leaving aside the issue of the relationship between “votes” and “electors,” looking at the map mentioned above, the map that records the number of “electors” for each one of the fifty states, it’s difficult not to conclude the decision about the number of “electors” assigned to each state lacks any logic, is outdated or arbitrary.

On the other hand, Article 21), 3) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights reads:

Article 21. 

(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

 

Under this rules, where is “equal suffrage” (a voting where each of the votes has equal value) left in the US system?

A link to the article “Electoral College in US,” in the Spanish Wikipedia:

https://es.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colegio_Electoral_de_los_Estados_Unidos?wprov=sfti1

 

 

 

 

 

 

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