Facts on the ground

Sean Gonsalves


— I was humbled by my ignorance. But even the ignorant quickly learns that

studying maps and learning the lay of the land is central to understanding the

Israeli-Palestinian conflict.


you only look at what is called the ‘peace process,’ from the political point of

view, you get a certain picture," Jeff Halper explained in his Jerusalem

living room.


an American-born Israeli Jew, is a professor of anthropology at Ben Gurion

University. He’s been part of the Israeli peace movement for over 25 years and

now heads up an organization called the Israeli Committee Against (Palestinian)

House Demolitions.


dismissing the good things that have come from the "peace process"

Halper, with humility and painstaking thoroughness, illustrates that if you

focus only on the political rhetoric the picture you get of the conflict is

severely distorted.


at the generous offer that Israel made the Palestinians – 95 percent of the West

Bank, dividing Jerusalem" – a typical American (and Israeli) reaction to

news reports about the "peace process," Halper said.


he asked, "How do you explain the Palestinian reaction to that?" When

the Barak government first started negotiating, they were offering 42 percent of

the West Bank and the Palestinian negotiating team rejected the proposal.

"You see or hear about these advances and think Israel has come around and

then the Palestinians start shooting. It doesn’t make any sense to people,"

he continued.


you have to plug into the equation is what’s happening on the ground.

"Unless you can understand the maps, unless you can understand why 95

percent isn’t a good deal for Palestinians, or what the other five percent

means, then it’s impossible to evaluate what’s going on. Why are the

Palestinians behaving the way they are? Is Barak really generous?"


left Halper’s house for a three-hour tour of parts of "Metropolitan

Jerusalem," which I later learned encompasses, not just the city of

Jerusalem, but 40 percent of the West Bank, including large Palestinian towns

and villages — Ramalla, El Bireh, Beit Sahour, Bethlehem and Beit Jalla, to

name a few.


one has to understand about Jerusalem is that it is being transformed from a

city into a larger region by the Israeli government. This has three effects. 1)

It divides the northern part of the West Bank from the southern part. 2) It

isolates Jerusalem’s Palestinian population from fellow Palestinians and 3) it

creates a corridor from Tel Aviv to Amman, Jordan. All of this ensures Israeli

control over any Palestinian state that might emerge from the "peace



Halper started talking about something called E1 — an Israeli government plan

that annexes Palestinian land to create a contiguous urban strip between

Jerusalem and the West Bank settlement of Ma’aleh Adumim. E1 effectively cuts

the West Bank in half, which, when and if its completed, will prevent the free

movement of Palestinians and their goods and therefore make a viable Palestinian

state impossible.


to the Master Plan approved by former Defense Minister Moshe Arens, E1 calls for

1,500 exclusively Jewish housing units, an industrial park, offices,

entertainment and sports centers, 10 hotels, health and academic facilities and

a regional cemetery.


of the Israeli "settlers" are being used as pawns, Halper said. The

Israeli government builds these subsidized settlements for poor and working-poor

Israelis as an incentive for them to move into Palestinian areas. "I call

them economic settlers. They’re not religious settlers as in other settlements.

If the government built homes for them inside Israel proper, they would



also known as Plan 420/4 Ma’aleh Adumim, is illegal in international law to the

extent that it promotes the settlement of an occupying power in occupied

territories. It violates Israeli Supreme Court decisions that settlements can

only be established for security purposes and it violates the Interim Agreement

of Oslo that obligates Israel to preserve the status quo and territorial

integrity of the West Bank pending final negotiations.


creates facts on the ground by unalterably integrating Israeli settlement and

infrastructure on the West Bank into Israel proper," Halper said.

"Keep in mind that the settlement population has doubled since the Oslo

accords were signed."


of this is to say that Israel doesn’t have a right to exist or that fringe

Palestinian violence is justified. But if you want to understand Palestinian

rejection of Barak’s "generous" offer, you must understand the

"facts on the ground." Add to this the fact that it’s all being

imposed by US-supported military might and you’ll understand a small piece of

what it is that Palestinians are rejecting.  Breeding ground for terrorism

 HEBRON — When talking about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the

various perspectives involved, it doesn’t take long for grown intelligent people

to start talking like kids about who did what to whom, first.


life in Israel and the Occupied Territories is not some John Wayne flick where

the forces of heavenly good are up against pure evil. It’s more like a Clint

Eastwood western, where moral shades of gray are the norm; the protagonist and

antagonist both fighting inner demons, even as they interact with one another.


aside from divine intervention, the state of Israel is here to stay, at least

for the foreseeable future. In talking with hundreds of Palestinians from across

the West Bank and Gaza, it’s clear to me that they too have accepted this

reality. Time brings change. After all, 60 percent of the Palestinian population

now living in the West Bank and Gaza is under the age of 30.


I walked around the Old City of Jerusalem, and then in visiting the Wailing

Wall, it struck me how wonderful it must feel to be a Jew in a place where you

can revel in your Jewish-ness with the relative security that you won’t be

expelled or exterminated en mass for just being Jewish.


flip side is: establishing the secular nation-state of Israel has brought with

it the displacement of hundreds of thousands of Palestinian natives. And for

Palestinians who didn’t flee, it has meant 52 years under military occupation by

a vastly superior military force. Think Mike Tyson in a fistfight with Elian



the city of Hebron, which is in the West Bank, just down the street from where

Abraham, Sarah, Isaac and Jacob are buried, is the office and home of the

Christian Peacemaker Team – a small group of American and Canadian Mennonites.

Besides offering counseling services to Palestinians, CPT members patrol the

streets engaging in nonviolent interventions whenever they see some physical

violence about to erupt between Israeli "settlers" or soldiers and

Palestinian villagers – a routine occurrence, most often being committed by the

former against the latter.


Fast, a CPT staff member, told us it is a common occurrence for "the

settlers," many of them toting guns on their hips, to harass and intimidate

Palestinian villagers by tipping over their vegetable carts in the market,

throwing rotten vegetables, spitting or yelling racist insults at them. An

American lawyer we met a few days later just outside Nazareth commented:

"It’s like Mississippi 1930 over here. apartheid. I had no idea it was like

this before I came."


the 6.3 million Israelis who live in Isreal and the Occupied Territories,

195,000 of them are "settlers" who live in these beautiful

"settlements" throughout Occupied Palestine, outside of Israel Proper.

But the word "settlements" brings to mind some old-Western gold rush

village. They’re nothing like that — except for the guns. Picture one of those

private-gated communities you see in suburban America surrounded by several

thousand soldiers with guns, tanks, sandbags, US supplied helicopters and other

assorted weaponry.


"settlers," Anita explained, verbally and physically attack

Palestinians on a regular basis. It usually goes the settlers’ way, not because

Palestinians are a bunch of Dalai Lamas (although Palestinians are very friendly

and hospitable people). It has more to do with the presence of the Israeli

Defense Force posted in strategic military outposts along the streets and on

rooftops everywhere.


IDF completely controls the roads, the air and the sea. So, let’s say a

"settler" is senselessly killed by a Palestinian gunmen. The typical

IDF response is: road closures, trapping Palestinians in their village. A

20-hour, stay-in-your-house curfew is also imposed on every Palestinian in the

village. This after the IDF shells an entire neighborhood suspected to be the

area from where the gunmen fired. I’m talking tank and helicopter attacks for up

to six hours — clearly a campaign not to catch the gunman but to terrorize

people whose only crime is that they happen to live in the vicinity and are



is known as "collective punishment," meted out because of the

desperate violent act of some hope-lost Palestinian, unrelated to the

Palestinians being bombed and shot at by IDF forces.


up a central street in the old city of Hebron with a Palestinian journalist, we

passed by two soldiers standing on the sidewalk next to two teenage Israeli

"settlers." Smirks on their face, the "settler" kids gave

the newsman the middle-fingered salute and said some nasty things about his

father. He said something nasty about their mother.


you know them," I asked. "No, I’ve never seen them before," he

said, shrugging it off as if they were just saying hello to one another. Now I

realize: They were saying hello to each other.


‘settlers’ peace settlement  EFRATZ — We went to the Efratz settlement to

meet with its spokesman, Efraim Mayer. After having visited the West Bank and

Gaza, we wanted to hear a Zionist viewpoint of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.


"pro-Israeli" Americans (some of whom have angrily emailed me in

recent weeks) would argue that any talk of Palestinian oppression is mere

propaganda. So it is revealing to note that Efraim — a former IDF soldier and

now a "hawkish," conservative, religious, Israeli settler — confirmed

what we had seen, that, indeed, Palestinians are forced to "live like

dogs" in the name of Israeli defense.


didn’t get a chance to ask if he thought it a contradiction to speak in terms of

"defense" while at the same time acknowledging that the enemy is being

forced to "live like dogs?" Let’s just say he wasn’t exactly

encouraging us to ask probing questions. He wanted to talk, hoping – knowing –

that we would go back and tell our American friends his truth.


came from the Bible," he said. "This is our document to show all over

the world that we got this land from God."


were sitting under clear blue skies in what looked like one of those picnic

areas you see at a nice public park. Kneeling on the ground a few picnic tables

away was an old Palestinian man, quietly replacing bricks under one of the



Arabs believe this land belongs to them. But in the Bible, we can find the

Palestinian people as murderers — descendents of Ishmael," Efraim said.


still having a difficult time trying to distinguish between his feelings about

Palestinians and the "Christian" American white supremacist who points

to the biblical "curse of Ham" to justify black oppression.


have Rabin. We have Barak. This is what we call garbage. They break the

proud-ness of Israel in the last generation." These political leaders have

turned their back on God, Efraim explained. "They think that in talking to

a murderer you can get peace."


has only one-way: to start to fight.It (doesn’t make sense) to sit and talk with

people when you know exactly that after the discussions, they are taking you and

killing you — your children, your family, everyone in the world," he



have two sons in the army. I tell my children — we tell our children in the

schools, starting in kindergarten — to live in the fatherland you have to



are very satisfied that Clinton isn’t president anymore because we thought he

brought problems here, the same thing with the father Bush – very anti-Semitic.

We believe that friendship with the United States — friendship with other lands

— must be on the basis that Israel belongs to the Jewish Israeli-nation. We are

going to break this mindset all over the world that Israel can be split up with



he compared the formation and defense of the state of Israel as being similar to

America’s founding and what happened to Native Americans at the hands of the

European settlers.


people in the United States are not going to ask for a piece of land. They are

not going to do any intifada to pick up from the United States pieces of Los

Angeles. I’m waiting for the moment when someone goes to the government of the

United States and says: ‘we are going to fight for a piece of land,’ and then

starts to take pieces of land in the capital of the United States. It will be

the last time that this guy opens his mouth in the democratic land of the United



me explain to you who are the Palestinian people – the people you are loving so

much. We are talking about murder groups. Terror groups. Nothing else..Now if

you are with me we are going to go up. If not, we are going to fight.

Palestinian people are not a nation. Remember what I am telling you. They are

group of terrorists and guerillas of nothing with nothing – also in the eyes of

Arab nations."


told us that 55 percent of Israelis share his views. I hope he’s wrong because

if you follow the logical extension of Efraim’s reasoning, Palestinians are not

real people because they have no country and even Arab nations reject them. And

a people with no land are prone to be violent, living, as they do, like dogs.


obvious options come to mind. 1) Accept all Palestinians, including refugees, as

equal citizens in a single bi-national democratic nation. 2) Set up a sovereign,

democratically viable Palestinian state or, 3) exterminate the enemy.

Apparently, Efraim dismisses the first two options.  


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