But the young, athletic girl who liked to run could not escape the grim reality of what it meant to live through an atomic blast. Nine years later Sadako would contract leukemia, dying a year later in a Hiroshima hospital at the age of 12. In death she joined the legions of the hibakusha, the Japanese term for the victims of radiation poisoning.
An estimated 140,000 people died as a result of the Hiroshima blast, tens of thousands of them instantly or within the next few months and almost all of them noncombatants and children. Three days later at Nagasaki, another bomb was dropped, killing thousands more. Eventually over 200,000 people would die as a result of the attacks, either during the bombings or later from illness. By any objective measure the nuclear attacks by the U.S. military constitute the largest acts of mass murder in the history of the world.
They also constitute acts shrouded in lies. At the time President Truman told Americans the targets were military sites. It was necessary to use the bombs to force Japan’s surrender, he declared. The public was also told—falsely—that leaflets were dropped prior to the bombings warning people to leave. Later, Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson claimed that the atom bomb saved the United States from an invasion of Japan that might have cost a million American casualties.
But U.S. official McGeorge Brundy came up with the million figure, based on nothing, as he later acknowledged. Consider only the assessment of Admiral William Leahy, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1945, who years later wrote: “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan.” The admiral compared the use of the bombs to adoption of “an ethical standard common to the barbarians of the Dark Ages.”
The Age of ‘Collateral Damage’…
Truman indeed knew Japan’s surrender was imminent, according to now declassified records. But if nuclear weapons were unnecessary to end the war, they did send a forceful global message about which country would dominate the post-war era. Truman did not intend for it to be the Soviet Union. Thus, the dead and victimized of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were not only the last casualties of World War II, but also the first casualties of the Cold War.
Dark ages, indeed. In our world the deliberate slaughter of civilians in war is very much the norm. The atrocities of the Nazis and Japanese militarists are well known, but less so was the intentional targeting by Britain’s air force of the concentrated worker housing of Hamburg, Germany. Ignoring the factories and U-boat construction yards south of the Elbe, British bombers under the command of extreme reactionary Arthur Harris instead spent months dropping incendiaries and high explosives on Hamburg’s civilians. Some British military leaders did not support this policy, but it prevailed and was driven not only by strategic war aims, but also by what science historian David Bodanis in his book, “Electric Universe” (Crown, 2005), describes as Harris’ acute hatred of the working classes.
More evidence. In the Errol Morris documentary, “Fog of War,” former Secretary of State Robert McNamara admits a reasonable case could have been made to have tried as war criminals the group of Americans who organized the mass death firebombing of Tokyo and other Japanese cities. It’s a significant admission since McNamara was part of that group. McNamara also acknowledges that the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin resolution passed by Congress, giving President Johnson the authority to unleash war in Vietnam, was based on a lie. The alleged torpedo attack by North Vietnam on the U.S.S. Maddox in 1964 never happened.
Fast forward 40 years. Other than the venerated thinkers at Fox News and their ilk, the whole world now knows the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003 was based on an equally fabricated justification: Iraq’s alleged possession of weapons of mass destruction. They didn’t exist. Nor does the shining “democracy” whose exportation became the fallback rationale to justify Iraq’s ongoing occupation.
As the public policy group Just Foreign Policy reports, what does exist is as many as 1,366,350 Iraqis dead as a result of consequences directly tied to the 2003 U.S. military invasion, “A dead Iraqi is just another dead Iraqi,” said one member of the Third Brigade, First Infantry Division, as reported by Chris Hedges and Laila Al-Arian for The Nation in 2007. The GI was describing his impression of the general attitude among U.S. troops who operate the patrols and supply convoys, man checkpoints, and conduct raids and arrests.
…And Also Madness and Irony
What also exists is a Democratic president who declares he will not use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapons states that support the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Formally, that’s a change from his Republican predecessor. But like his Republican predecessor President Obama also insists on retaining the American threat to use nuclear weapons first. Nor in arms talks with Russia would the administration explicitly adopt language threatening nuclear attack only against nuclear threats.
In fact, earlier this year the Defense Science Board (DSB), a Department of Defense advisory group, recommended the United States add “large-scale” cyber attacks by enemy nations to the category of situations justifying nuclear retaliation. As well, the DSB wants a special new force of bombers, cruise missiles, and cyber weapons to be established to respond to cyber-attacks on the Pentagon. The latter is apparently the Pentagon’s idea of how to avoid nuclear war, through developing even more non-nuclear military options of devastating destructive power.
As Richard A. Clarke and Steven Andreasen, former National Security Council members, caution in a recent Washington Post op-ed, “If the United States, Russia and China adopted policies threatening an early nuclear response to cyber attacks, more countries would surely take the same approach.” In turn, the “cyber-nuclear action-reaction dynamic” will likely lead only to “a new focus by Pentagon planners on generating an expanding list of cyber-related targets and the operational deployment of nuclear forces to strike those targets in minutes.”
Just as the National Rifle Association (NRA) responds to violent gun atrocities such as the Newtown killings with calls for more guns in schools and on the streets, the military mind-set sees only more weapons as the road to peace. But it is a dangerous road these purveyors of weapons and war offer, going nowhere desirable as far as creating a just and peaceful world.
Meanwhile, the White House periodically employs placid rhetoric in favor of the idea of a “nuclear weapons-free zone” in the Middle East. But such rhetoric has become akin to long-standing references to “the peace process,” which is the ironic way of describing Israel’s decades-long state of permanent war against the Palestinians. Actually, for years now nuclear weapons-free zone just means no nukes for Iran. Israel is well known to possess an unacknowledged nuclear arsenal. Iran also remains a country within striking distance of U.S. nuclear-armed submarines.
Tellingly, during the 2008 primary race Obama briefly flirted with the notion of opposing use of nuclear weapons as a foreign policy option. His primary rival and later Secretary of State Hillary Clinton then sharply criticized Obama. “I don’t believe that any president should make any blanket statements with respect to the use or non-use of nuclear weapons,” Clinton said.
Actually, yes they can. They can at minimum adopt a no-first strike policy. They can also work vigorously to eliminate nuclear weapons from their own and the world’s arsenals, instead of quietly reconstituting their nuclear stockpiles while talking “disarmament.” They can question why the United States arms itself with a military force whose budget equals almost half of all world military spending. Most important, they can repudiate a foreign policy tradition that takes as a given the American right to send troops and establish military bases anywhere in the world.
Sixty-eight years after the bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the world remains perilously trapped in conflict. In 2007 the average yield of a nuclear weapon was about 10 times greater than the 15-kton Hiroshima bomb, noted Raymond G. Wilson, professor emeritus of physics at Illinois Wesleyan University, in an article published that year for the Peace and Conflict Monitor. “Throughout the 50 years following 1945, the average rate of creation of nuclear weapons in world arsenals was the equivalent of about 70 Hiroshima bombs per day,” said Wilson, “every one of those 18,250 days.”
The threat of nuclear annihilation remains real. Yet the irony of our age is that for the first time in human history the science, technology, manufacturing and agriculture exist to eliminate all want. But in the context of a world also driven by the acquisition of corporate profits and entrenched class and nationalist divisions, the world’s people instead face an increasingly uncertain and violent future. Or even the possibility of no future.
The devastating Fukushima nuclear plant accident in Japan in 2011 stands as another, different kind of reminder of the dangers of nuclear power. Will we hear the message? We must work not only to ban nuclear weapons, but also eliminate society’s dependence on nuclear energy.
Children Deserve to Live
Young Sadako Sasaki did not deserve to die at age 12. Yet her story is one among countless millions of tragic accounts of “man’s inhumanity to man,” of the innocents whose lives over the last century have been cheap fodder for the killing machines of state power, whether of the democratic, fascist, or other variety.
During her months of hospitalization, Sadako undertook a project to fold a thousand paper cranes in the hope that, according to Japanese legend, her prayer for life would be granted. It was perhaps just the wish of a child. But Sadako never gave up and folded the cranes up until the day of her death. In Japan, after her death young people inspired by her story organized to collect money to build a statue of Sadako, which was unveiled in Hiroshima Peace Park in 1958. There is also a statue of Sadako in Seattle’s Peace Park.
At the bottom of the statue in Japan of Sadako holding a golden crane is the inscription, “This is our cry, This is our prayer, Peace in the world.”? ?Sixty-eight years after Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed, they remain words to remember and live by in this mad and tragic age.
Mark Harris has periodically updated this essay commemorating the anniversary of the nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The original version, “We Are All Living on Planet Hiroshima,” was published in 2007 on the ZNet newssite. Harris lives in Portland, Oregon, and edits the blog, PlanetOccupy.org.