Malcolm X, speaking at a rally of the Organization of Afro-American Unity in 1964, described Patrice Emery Lumumba as "the greatest black man who ever walked the African continent. He didn't fear anybody. He had those people [the colonialists] so scared they had to kill him. They couldn't buy him, they couldn't frighten him, they couldn't reach him." This was three years after Lumumba was assassinated by Belgian mercenaries in the breakaway state of Katanga (southern Congo).
Why was Lumumba killed? Because he was a relentless, dedicated, intelligent, passionate anti-colonialist, Pan-Africanist, and Congolese nationalist. He had the unstinting support of the Congolese masses and stood in the way of Belgium's plan to transform Congo from a colony into a neo-colony.
Until the mid-1950s, the nationalist movement had been dominated by the small Congolese middle class. It was not a radical movement. It was composed of clerical workers, mid-level army officers, supervisors, and so on who were getting a cut of the enormous profits Belgium was making out of Congo. They opposed direct colonialism in the sense that they disliked white rule and were sick of being second class citizens in their own country. However, the basic economic institutions of colonialism suited them quite well. They were scared by the Congolese masses—the peasants, the workers, who suffered in slave-like conditions and who bore the brunt of the famines and the genocidal actions of the colonizers.
The people wanted control. They wanted the Belgians out, not just moved from the front seat to the back seat. They didn't want white oppressors to be replaced with black oppressors. They wanted freedom, justice, democracy, nationalization, and self-determination.
Joining the nationalist movement around 1955, Lumumba quickly grew disillusioned with the middle class elite and addressed himself to the most oppressed sections of society—the peasants and workers of Congo who were radicalizing him. He developed a clear strategy for total decolonization to be brought about by mass political action. In 1958, he and others formed the Mouvement National Congolais (MNC), which immediately established itself as the key organization in the struggle against colonial rule.
The Belgians and their friends in the international community were shocked by the pace of development of the nationalist movement. In the mid-1950s, Belgium—which had exercised a vicious, murderous, plunderous rule over Congo—was confident that it would retain its African colony for at least another century. However, by 1959, the MNC had gained such popularity and credibility that the Belgians knew their time was up.
But they had a backup plan: to replace traditional colonialism (white rule, backed by a military occupation) with neo-colonialism (black rule in white interests, backed by Belgian money, advisers, and mercenaries). That way, Belgium's theft of Congo's natural wealth—including massive reserves of coltan, diamonds, copper, zinc, and cobalt—would continue uninterrupted.
The Belgians decided to grant independence much sooner than anybody was expecting, in the hope that they would prevent the further growth of the nationalist movement; that it would be unable to develop a coherent organizational structure and would be heavily reliant on Belgium's assistance. However, Lumumba had rallied the best elements of the nationalist movement around him and had no intention of capitulating.
At the independence day celebrations on June 30, 1960, Belgian King Baudouin made it clear that he expected Belgium to have a leading role in determining Congo's future. In his speech, he chose not to mention such unpleasant moments in history as the murder by Belgian troops of 10 million Congolese in 20 years for failing to meet rubber collection quotas. Instead he advised the Congolese to stay close to their Belgian friends: "Don't compromise the future with hasty reforms and don't replace the structures that Belgium hands over to you until you are sure you can do better…. Don't be afraid to come to us. We will remain by your side and give you advice."
He and his cohorts were shocked when Lumumba, newly-elected as prime minister, took the stage and announced that "No Congolese worthy of the name will ever be able to forget that it is by struggle that we have won [our independence], a struggle waged each and every day, a passionate idealistic struggle, a struggle in which no effort, privation, suffering, or drop of our blood was spared."
Clearly referring to Belgium, Lumumba stated that, "We will count not only on our enormous strength and immense riches, but on the assistance of numerous foreign countries whose collaboration we will accept if it is offered freely and with no attempt to impose on us an alien culture of no matter what nature."
Ludo de Witte writes in The Assassination of Lumumba of this historic speech: "Lumumba [spoke] in a language the Congolese thought impossible in the presence of a European, and those few moments of truth feel like a reward for eighty years of domination. For the first time in the history of the country, a Congolese has addressed the nation and set the stage for the reconstruction of Congolese history. By this one act, Lumumba has reinforced the Congolese people's sense of dignity and self confidence."
The Belgians, along with the other colonialist nations, were horrified at Lumumba's stance. The Western press was filled with words of venom aimed at this humble but brilliant man who dared to tell Europe that Africa didn't need it. The French newspaper La Gauche noted that "the press probably did not treat Hitler with as much rage and virulence as they did Patrice Lumumba."
In the first few months of independence, Belgium and its Western allies busied themselves whipping up all kinds of political and regional strife. Pro-Belgium armies set up in the regions of Katanga and Kasai, declaring those regions to be independent states. This was, of course, a massive blow to the new Congolese state. Meanwhile, behind the scenes, the Belgians (along with their friends in France, the U.S., and the UN leadership) developed plans for a coup d'état that would remove Lumumba from power. This was effected on September 14, shortly after independence.
But even under house arrest, Lumumba was a dangerous threat to colonial interests. He was still providing leadership to the Congolese people and he still had the support of the majority of the army. Therefore, the Belgians connived with the CIA to murder Lumumba, who—along with three other leading nationalists—was assassinated by firing squad (led by white Belgian officials in the Katangan police force) after several days of beatings and torture. That Belgium is most responsible for Lumumba's death is proven in The Assassination of Lumumba. Furthermore, the UN leadership was complicit in the sense that it could very easily have put a stop to this murderous act.
When the news of Lumumba's murder broke, there was outrage around the world, especially in Africa and Asia. Demonstrations were organized in dozens of capital cities. In Cairo, thousands of protesters stormed the Belgian embassy, tore down King Baudouin's portrait, put Lumumba's in its place, and then proceeded to burn down the building.
Sadly, with Lumumba and other leading nationalists out of the way, the struggle for Congo's freedom suffered a severe setback which was not to be reversed for over three decades.
There are a lot of important lessons to learn from this key moment in the history of anti-colonial struggle, lessons that many people have not yet fully taken on board:
· Western governments and media organizations use every trick in the book to divide and rule oppressed people, to stir up strife, to create smaller states that can be more easily controlled
· Character assassination is used as a means of justifying interventions against third world governments. Just look at how they painted Aristide in Haiti or Chavez, Castro, and many others
· UN intervention often means intervention on the side of the oppressors
· The intelligence services use every illegal and dishonest means to destabilize and cause confusion
On the bright side, the past decade has been one of historic advances that point the way towards a different and much brighter future. The political, economic, military, and cultural dominance of imperialism is starting to wane. As Seumas Milne pointed out at the recent Equality Movement meeting, the "war on terror" has exposed the limits of Western military power. Meanwhile, the economic crisis has started to discredit the entire neoliberal model. The rise of China, the wave of progressive change in Latin America, the emergence of other important third world players all indicate a very different future.
In Congo itself, progress is being made—although it often seems frustratingly slow—principally because the West is still sponsoring armies in support of its economic interests. But, as de Witte writes, "the crushing weight of the [Mobutu] dictatorship has been shaken off." We can't overstate the importance of this step.
As we all move forward together against imperialism, colonialism, and racism, we should keep Lumumba's legacy in our hearts and minds.
Lumumba wrote in his last letter to his wife: "Neither brutal assaults, nor cruel mistreatment, nor torture have ever led me to beg for mercy, for I prefer to die with my head held high, unshakable faith and the greatest confidence in the destiny of my country rather than live in slavery and contempt for sacred principles. History will one day have its say; it will not be the history taught in the United Nations, Washington, Paris, or Brussels, however, but the history taught in the countries that have rid themselves of colonialism and its puppets.
"Africa will write its own history and both north and south of the Sahara it will be a history full of glory and dignity…. I know that my country, now suffering so much, will be able to defend its independence and its freedom. Long live the Congo. Long live Africa."
Carlos Martinez is a member of Beat Knowledge (www.beatknowledge.org).