White Feminist Fatigue Syndrome


A reply to Nancy Fraser

In her recent piece in Com­ment is Free, “How fem­in­ism became capitalism’s hand­maidenand how to reclaim it Nancy Fraser draws on her own work in polit­ical the­ory to argue that fem­in­ism at best has been co- line-height:150%;font-family:"Verdana","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:
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cap­it­al­ist ven­ture of the neo- 10.0pt;line-height:150%;font-family:"Verdana","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:
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reasoned self- line-height:150%;font-family:"Verdana","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"”>reflection, one that takes stock and respons­ib­il­ity for past alli­ances and cel­eb­ra­tions of stra­tegic moves for the bet­ter­ment of women’s lives, at second glance reveals the innate and repet­it­ive myopia of White fem­in­ism to take account, to con­verse and think along with Black and Third World Feminists.

Writ­ing from the early 1970s onwards, these schol­ars and act­iv­ists have sys­tem­at­ic­ally engaged a fem­in­ist cri­tique of not only state cap­it­al­ism, but of a glob­al­ised cap­it­al­ism rooted in colo­nial legacies. These fem­in­isms have not pri­or­it­ised “cul­tural sex­ism” over eco­nomic redis­tri­bu­tion. The lit­er­at­ure is vast, the examples myriad, and thus, it’s all the more tir­ing when White fem­in­ists speak of second- line-height:150%;font-family:"Verdana","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"”>wave fem­in­ism as if it were the only
mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:Verdana”>” and use the pro­noun “we” when lament­ing the fail­ures of their struggles. Let us just say there is no such thing as a “fem­in­ism” as the sub­ject of any sen­tence that des­ig­nates the sole pos­i­tion for the critic of pat­ri­archy. For such pos­i­tion has been frac­tured ever since Sojourner Truth said “Ain’t I a woman too?” There is though a fem­in­ist subject- line-height:150%;font-family:"Verdana","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"”>position, the one Fraser is lament­ing, which has sat very com­fort­ably in the seat of the self-
line-height:150%;font-family:"Verdana","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"”>determined, eman­cip­ated sub­ject. That pos­i­tion, of course, is that which she iden­ti­fies as a con­trib­utor to neo­lib­er­al­ism. But that is no sur­prise, for both her fem­in­ism and neo­lib­er­al­ism share the same lib­eral core that Black and Third World fem­in­ists have iden­ti­fied and exposed since very early in the tra­ject­ory of feminisms.

The work of A.Y. Davis, Audre Lorde, Himani Ban­nerji, Avtar Brah, Selma James, Maria Mies, Chandra Talpade Mohanty, Silvia Fed­er­ici, Dorothy Roberts and scores of oth­ers, have shattered the lim­ited and exclu­sion­ary nature of the con­cep­tual frame­works developed by White fem­in­ists in the Eng­lish speak­ing world. These schol­ars and act­iv­ists have cre­ated frame­works of ana­lysis that sim­ul­tan­eously sur­mount a chal­lenge to and provide a dra­matic cor­rect­ive to both Black Marx­ist and anti- line-height:150%;font-family:"Verdana","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"”>colonial the­ory that failed fun­da­ment­ally to the­or­ise gender and sexu­al­ity, and Marx­ist and social­ist fem­in­ist thought that con­tin­ues to fail, in many ways, to account for race, his­tor­ies of col­on­isa­tion, and the struc­tural inequit­ies between the so-
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mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"”>? font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"”>?American women to become involved in early fem­in­ist act­iv­ism against rape that was focused on law enforce­ment and the judi­cial sys­tem (Davis, 1984). The expro­pri­ation of black labour rooted in the logics of slavery repeats itself in the expro­pri­ation of con­vict labour in the post- 150%;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"”>?already racial and recall pat­terns of viol­ence that emerged through the dis­pos­ses­sion of their lands, lan­guages, resources and yes, cul­tural prac­tices. (See P. Monture- line-height:150%;font-family:"Verdana","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"”>Angus, Kim Ander­son, Sherene Razack)

Recent sug­ges­tions that fem­in­ists should turn their gaze towards unpaid work, the work of care, was ana­lysed by Patri­cia Hill Collins in Black Fem­in­ist Thought: Know­ledge, Power and Con­scious­ness. She emphas­ises that for African- mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:Verdana”>’ well- line-height:150%;font-family:"Verdana","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"”>being can be under­stood by them as a
font-family:"Verdana","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"”>form of res­ist­ance to the social and eco­nomic forces that col­lude to dam­age African-
line-height:150%;font-family:"Verdana","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:
"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"”>American chil­dren and fam­il­ies. Black fem­in­ists have also led the wages for house­work cam­paign, chal­len­ging bour­geois norms of the fam­ily eco­nomy. Fol­low­ing A.Y. Davis, we note that White fem­in­ists need to recog­nise when they engage polit­ical strategies that Black and Third World fem­in­ists have already been the­or­ising and prac­tising for a long time.

End­ing oppres­sion, viol­ence against women, viol­ence against men, par­tic­u­larly of the neo- mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"”>? font-family:"Verdana","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";
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race 10.0pt;line-height:150%;font-family:"Verdana","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:
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mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:Verdana”>” in their oth­er­wise left- line-height:150%;font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"”>?deaf? Are they unable to cede the floor to Black fem­in­ism because it would mean the loss of a cer­tain racial priv­ilege? The per­sist­ent claim to uni­ver­sal­ism, which is the core of this White fem­in­ism, renders the exper­i­ences, thoughts and work of Black and Third World fem­in­ists invis­ible, over and over again. Time’s up!