avatar
U.S. Occupation


In a March 1985 talk at Harvard, Noam Chomsky once more mentioned the

"Grand Area" planning of the US foreign policy developed in the

1940s. The "Grand Area" among other areas was to include

"western and southern Europe and the oil-producing regions of the Middle

East; in fact it was to include everything, if that were possible." Also,

Chomsky said; "In the real world, US global planning has always been

sophisticated and careful, as you’d expect from a major superpower…"

In the core of this "sophisticated and careful" planning one

finds the need for a US occupation of the "Grand Area." The

dictionary "definition" of occupation is: "The holding and

control of an area by a foreign military force." The key notions even in

this strict definition are: "control" and "military

force." So, the US in order to control the Grand Area had to use military

force. The "beauty" of this planning is that the military force does

not need to be "foreign", i.e. American, it could be a

"proxy" military force, namely the military force of the very same

peoples that are under US control.

Of course, this is not a US invention. In history there are many examples

of proxy military forces. One example is the "janissaries" of the

Ottomans, young men of the occupied people under complete control of the

occupiers ready to kill their own people. A more recent example is the

"security battalions" that the Nazis built from the occupied peoples

in almost all the European countries that they occupied. As a matter of fact,

it was the remnants of these same "security battalions" that the US

used to initiate its control of the Grand Area.

So, basing the occupation of the Grand Area on the proxy armies formed from

the occupied, the US adopted two types of occupation, according to the demands

of the various geopolitical situations in the course of time. One might call

the first the "benign" type of occupation, the second being the

usual "harsh" type of occupation. During benign occupation there is

no need for torture, kilings, etc. During harsh occupation torture, killings,

etc are overt. and the order of the day. Yet, in both types the control is the

same.

To illustrate how this process of sequential periods of benign and harsh

occupations functions, let us take the case of Greece, a geopolitically

"interesting" part of the Grand Area.

The Nazi occupation in Greece ended in October 12 of 1944. A few weeks

later the British occupied the country, following a provocation that Churchill

concocted on December 4 of 1994 by killing Greeks during a demonstration in

Athens. That (transitional) British occupation lasted up to 1947. That year

the US snatches the baton from the British and the US occupation of Greece

begins and is still going on. The first 5 years up to 1952 the occupation is

of the (extremely) harsh type. The occupying army is Greek but the commander

is General James Van Fleet of the US Army. A network of nazi-type

concentration camps is established in which tens of thousands of young males,

thought to be unwiilling to follow orders, are kept imprisoned and tortured

for years. Against the general population (starting with the British and then

taken over by the Amaricans) the security police, paramilitaries and the

judicial system are released. The night raids in homes, disappearances,

torture, murders, and executions after kangaroo trials result in some 160,000

people killed.

The control of the country was complete. A State Department memorandum,

dated August 4, 1949, with a certain George McGhee speaking, reads: "(It)

would be necessary to bear in mind the political consequences of negative

decisions on Greek industrial development projects. It might be desirable to

reduce the doses of American aid to Greece, so that the Greek standard of

living would gradually be brought DOWN to a level which the economy of the

country could support. However, this process would have to be carried out

gradually and very carefully to avoid violent or unfavorable political

reaction in Greece. It would have to be accompanied by some plan for

large-scale EMIGRATION." (Emphasis added). "Further along in the

memorandum still another astonishing remark by another State Department

official appeared: ‘Mr. Dort commented that Greece will achieve economic

viability at some level, and that WE do have to decide what that level will

be’."(Again, emphasis added). Meanwhile, the US started to systematically

build a corps of elites in the Greek society that were willing to take orders

from the US. The most vital part of that corps were the military. It was

tragically comic to observe these military people, many of advanced age,

strive to learn English, so that they could be chosen by the US boss for

"responsible" positions up the military ladder. This goes on to this

day. It is important to understand the extremely important role that the

English language has played in the US occupation of the Grand Area. English

has become a tool of "enslavement."

In the civilian sector of Greek society the, above mentioned, "doses

of American aid" created a politico-economic elite that were the proxy

managers of the country for the benefit of the US. Among the people chosen by

the US were the top members of the Nazi "security battalions." A

couple of their offspring are still members of the Greek parliament today.

Most of the children of this elte were sent to US universities, preferably

Harvard, and are now back, ready to inherit the "job" of their

parents. Also, as usual, the intellectuals were more than eager to fill the

ranks of the "friends" of the US. Take the example of Panagiotis

Kanellopoulos, the intellectual-politician, who, as General James Van Fleet

was inspecting some Greek army units, told him: "General, here is your

army!" Unbelievable? No, it is going on, silently, all over the world

right this minute.

This phase of harsh (or brutal) occupation lasted to about 1952, when the

execution of Nikos Belogiannis took place and the publicity seemed to be

counterproductive for the US, with the Picasso drawing of Belogiannis holding

the famous carnation, etc. Besides, the Greeks little by little were joining

the ranks of the consumers. Thus, the next phase for a benign type of

occupation was prepared and in 1955 the US chooses Constantine Karamanlis, an

up to "then little known politician" as Prime Minister of Greece.

Thus starts the first part of the Karamanlis saga which was to last up to

1963, when Lambrakis (of the "Z" film) is murdered in Salonica by

the US through the efforts of the palace. It seems that Karamanlis was ousted

because he started making the fatal mistake; not to obey US orders. He fled to

Paris and lay low for more than a decade. After the murder of Lambrakis the

Greeks start to resist the US occupation, even in its benign type. They react

by voting for a center-left government under George Papandreou, father of

Andreas Papandreou. The Americans sense the change in the attitude of the

population and in 1965 topple the government, by literally buying out a

sufficient number of parliamentary deputies to negate a vote of confidence.

The man who did the job for the Americans was Constantine Mitsotakis, a Cretan

politician. After this, which the Greeks consider as treason, Mitsotakis lies

low for almost 3 decades. In the early 90s he becomes prime minister of

Greece! Also, during the 90s for the entire decade almost every summer he has

played host to his bosom friend George Bush, former President of the US, his

wife Barbara, and more than a dozen assorted Bush relatives. The moment of the

announcement of the indictment of Milosevic by the International War Crimes

Tribunal on May 27, Mitsotakis and his daughter Dora (45) were with Milosevic,

another bosom friend (and possibly a business associate) of Mitsotakis’. This

we enjoyed on our TV screens on the evening news. Dora waits her turn to be

the prime minister of Greece, as this period it is the turn of Costantine

Karamanlis (43), a nephew of the older one, to be prime minister, in the next

few months. These dynasties are US created pools of proxy managers for the

periods of benign occupation.

Let us return to 1965. The Greek population still continues to make an

unacceptable mistake. They are ready to elect a government that is not

acceptable to the US. The US government sees the writing on the wall and

initiates the phase of the harsh version of the occupation in 1967 through a

dictatorship by a group of brutal and not very bright colonels. The

concentration camps, the torture chambers, etc. are in full blast again. This

lasts for 7 years up to 1974, when the dictatorship of the colonels is

terminated by the US. It is instructive to dwell for a second on the

"carefulness" of the US planners during the hours that followed the

departure of the dictators from early in the morning up to the middle of the

night, when Karamanlis (who by now has regained the favor of the US) arrives

at the airport of Athens from his exile in Paris. For all those hours there

was no official Greek government, the population was out in the streets

celebrating and there was no one to be in control of the military forces. Lo

and behold, Evangelos Averof, a rightist politician, appears at the Greek

Ministry of Defense (the Greek Pentagon) and takes the leadership of the armed

forces. Averof had no official or other qualification to justify his act,

however during WWII he was an agent for the OSS (the parent of the CIA). One

has to grant it to the US planners, no loose ends. Then from 1974 Greece

enters again the benign phase of the occupation with Karamanlis, Andres

Papandreou, et al, as proxy managers. This is holding up to the present. The

US occupation of Greece has lasted for 52 years! Turkey, Thailand. South

Korea, Brazil, Argentina, Central America, etc. have gone and are going

through the same process.

When the US decides that it is time to have "peace" in

Kosovo-Yugoslavia, then this means that the US is ready to initiate the

familiar cycles of benign-harsh occupation of these areas. The proxy military

leadership and the proxy political managers may already have been chosen by

the US. The physical destruction of both areas from the bombing is already

depressing. However, equally depressing is the fact that these populations

will soon lose their dignity by entering the cycle of US occupation.

Is there no hope? Of course there is! It is to be found in the

radicalization of the American people.

 

 

Leave a comment